During the early Mughal period the leading poet saint of Krishna devotion was Vallabhacharya (1479-1531), who at the age of 11 years came to Kashi for study. Later after completing pilgrimage to all the important sacred places in India, he finally settled down in Varanasi. While living in Varanasi at Jatanbar he propounded the philosophy of Shuddhadvaita, and wrote about 84 books. He was married in 1504, and his son Vitthalanatha was born in 1515 in Kashi. Vallabhacharya built a small temple of Krishna, which was renovated and expanded in 1730 by one of the great saints of the same line, Sri Gopal-Ji. The present structure of the temple was built in 1777 and named Gopala Mandir. Lying in Chaukhambha area, the Gopala Mandir is the patron seat of the Vallabha group of followers. Facing the main temple are the temples of Ranachoda-Ji, Baladeo-Ji and Dau-Ji. Nearby other temples are ones dedicated to Siddhda Durga and Vindu Madhava. === Description ===: On the 8th day of the dark fortnight of Bhadrapada (August-September) falls the birthday of Krishna (the 8th incarnation of Vishnu), which is celebrated in the Krishna related temples, most notably the Gopala Mandir. In the temple, on this occasion the main hall and stage display elaborate scenes of Krishna with his cowherd and milkmaid friends, with tiny cattle and trees, with toys and swings for his pleasure. Distribution of special prasada (sweets offered to god) to as many visitors as possible is popular. The day after Dipavali (first moon in the Karttika, October-November) is Annakuta (“the Mountain of Food”), associated with the legend of Krishna. Krishna is worshipped as Lord of Govardhana, the mountain he lifted up to protect the cowherd folk from the wrathful rains of Indra (king of the heaven). In a more elaborate form as in the temples of Vishvanatha and Annapurna, the Gopala Mandir, changed to the special place of decoration, celebration and offering of foodstuffs. At this temple 56 types of bhogas (edible offerings to the God) are offered, and 3-day festival is performed there.
Coming from the lane linking the Sankatha Ghat close to the corner of Sankatha Devi temple is the temple of Vindhyavasini (CK 2/ 33), a spatial manifestation of the goddess of the Vindhya Mountain (Vindhya-vasini), the original place of which is 78km southwest of Varanasi city. The legends refer that in mythic period goddess Durga was residing in the Vindhyan Mountain, so the name Vindhyavasini. The annual celebration is held on the 3rd day of dark fortnight of Bhadrapada (August-September) which is known as her birthday. This is one of the popular temples among the devotees of Kashi, especially for the tonsure (mundana) ritual of children. After a short walk along the lane towards the left, one reaches the compound of Siddheshvari Devi (CK 7/ 124). The Kashi Khanda (79.105) says that by living here for six months one can attain great spiritual power. The compound is divided into two parts. Close to the entrance on the left is a stone image of Koka Varaha in the open space, and on the right is the shrine of Satynarayana Vishnu. Beside this on the open porch is Varaheshvara linga, a symbolic image of interrelatedness between Shiva (linga) and Vishnu (Varaha). In the corner below the surface is Kaliyugeshvara linga, and in the adjacent wall is Candreshvara Yantra, a cosmic design to please the Moon god (Candra) who represents fertility, coolness and beauty. In the courtyard is Candreshvara Kupa (well), in the water of which devotees see their auspicious reflection with a view to having long life. Passing through a narrow gate one enters into second part of the compound. In the left corner first one meets the lingas of Candreshvara and Siddheshvara. Attached to them on the altar along the wall is the image of Siddheshvari Devi. On the opposite side of this hall is the Vidyeshvara linga.